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Classical Chinese test described in test methods and problem-solving guide

Chinese curriculum standard for middle school ancient Chinese "reading" requirements, combined with the country over the test paper analysis of proposition, tests on classical Chinese test centers in the following areas:
A common notional words in classical Chinese. Including homophones, polysemy, using ancient and modern dissent, parts of speech and other special uses.
Second, classical words. In ancient Chinese, the words shall include the pronouns, conjunctions, prepositions, adverbs, particles, interjections, and so on. In exams, classical words are generally not as the focus test, asked to distinguish between classical words of common usage in order to help you understand classical Chinese statement.
Third sentence comprehension and translation of classical Chinese. Classical sentence focus examination and differences in expressions of modern Chinese special sentence patterns, such as sentences, passive sentences, sentence, inverted sentence is omitted (prepositional object, attribute and adverbial sentence after sentence with rear). Translation is generally classical statement tests the necessary content, mainly examining the integrity, accuracy, appropriateness of the translation.
Four were reading. In addition to examining other than knowledge of key words, examine three main points: (1) induction, General Center; (2) the author, (3) appreciation for writing. Sometimes extends from class to class, examining the transfer of knowledge and skills. Is in need of attention, analyze and summarize the author's opinions, attitudes, and to take into account the author's living environment and background.
Five is the famous literary and cultural knowledge and famous sayings recited from memory. Literary common sense relates to writers and works, style, when workers should be classified, such as classified by dynasty writer, grouped by genre or manner of expression of poetry, in the title and does not represent a style that represents the style of the collation.
For test center we can easily see classical Chinese learning depends on "standards" by "this". "Standard" is to close-fitting curriculum standards. Of course standard of Chinese writings in junior middle school "reading" should be "read simple classical Chinese, with notes and reference books to understand the basic content". In the course of our review, we hold the "mark" in the process of accumulation of constant conclusion. For example, master the classical common meaning of content words and function words, understanding classical Chinese sentences in particular. "This" is "textbook" for "this", a comprehensive and in-depth review of every classical sorting points.
And the dominant philosophy in classical Chinese notional words in classical Chinese notional words in classical Chinese, was the first breakthrough of learning classical Chinese. Notional words in classical Chinese word is relatively fixed, there are many rules to follow.
1. the interchangeability of Chinese characters. In ancient Chinese, can use some words sound the same or similar and sometimes shape words instead of similar are called variants. Confused and generally include a homonym interchangeability and sound to borrow three forms and similar variants. Not many homophones, and the majority has indicated in a note, when you can put together, based on the understanding of memory.
2. the multiple meanings of the term. In ancient Chinese, a Word has several meanings, to focus on typical, familiar polysemous words. Understood to be based on the original meaning, depending on the specific context to ascertain the specific meaning of a Word. When is a common classical note accumulated different meaning and usage of words, take notes, recorded when she sees a new explanation; the second is combined with the specific context of comparative analysis, mastering the polysemy of the basic law, and can be used in the reading.
3. past and present objections. Because the meaning of evolution, some words the same meaning in different ancient and modern words, there are four common situations: ① expand the meaning of second narrowing of the meaning of c shift of meaning about emotional change of word meaning. If the "rate of wife, Yi to the wall" (of the Peach-Blossom Spring) in the "wife" the term ancient meaning refers to "wives and children", this refers specifically to "man's spouse", is a narrowing of the meaning. Most comments in dissent in ancient and modern teaching materials, such as "sacrifice," "traffic" and so on, when finishing the text can appear in.
4. use parts of speech. In ancient Chinese, the parts of speech are generally fixed, but are used in special circumstances, will change its part of speech, another function of the word. When you want to use words that appear in the book label, understanding and memory.
Second, classical words can be combined with specific context to understand their function and significance. In explanation, should accurately using the equivalent in modern Chinese words to replace with collations compare, understand the usage and meaning of words. As Ouyang Xiu of drunk Weng Pavilion remember in the a total 23 at with to "and" this function words, we can will its usage antibody for five species, on compared good remember has: (1) said tied relationship, as "Brook deep and fish fertilizer"; (2) said undertake relationship, as "Sunrise and linfei open"; (3) said modified relationship, as "miscellaneous however Qian Chen who"; (4) said progressive relationship, as "drink less Noir drunk, and years and highest"; (5) said transition relationship, as "poultry bird know mountain of Le, and not know people of Le".
You can prepare a notebook, a focused, targeted to collect, sort, organize, accumulate, referring to "the multiple meanings of the term" word review on ", its, seekers, and, then, is, and, of nature, and when, in the and, also, and the husband, Yan", 15 classical words meaning and usage of them.
Third, classical Chinese sentence comprehension and translation 1. classical Chinese sentence comprehension. Different sentences in classical Chinese and modern Chinese expressions, such as sentences, passive sentences, sentence, inverted sentence is omitted (prepositional object, attribute and adverbial sentence after sentence with rear). These special classical patterns, contribute to the understanding of the classical statement. Understanding classical Chinese sentences, is to master the sentence of special characteristics, especially its iconic words; the second is select some typical examples of careful analysis, experience, and master the basic methods of special sentence patterns, sorting best when supplemented with examples.
2. classical Chinese translation of statements. Basic principles of translation are translation, free translation supplement. Translation should correspond to words, and make necessary adjustments as needed, so complete, accurate and appropriate. Classical translation of method General has: left (retained names, and names, and name, and title, and titles and and Chinese mean same of words), and increased (added monosyllabic words for double sound Word, or fill out omitted components), and by deleting (delete not need translation out of function words,), and for (with mean same of Chinese word replaced ancient Chinese word), and adjustable (adjustment and Chinese habits different of sentences of Word order or word order, makes of is Chinese habits).
When reviewing, you can select the part of speech, translation by using these methods, paying particular attention to those places need to be supplemented and adjusted. Each block of text after translation, and carefully check the original again, see if they are complete and consistent, language fluency, specification, such as improper and modify, as appropriate.
Four, and on classical reading reading classical, cannot only stay in words of understand Shang, but to in overview full text, and understanding Word, and Word, and sentence meaning of based Shang, right to grasp paper paragraph of thought, and structure and the Center, to figure out sentence and sentence Zhijian of relationship, clear key statement in paper in the of meaning and role, combined author by at of environment analysis General author in paper in the of views, and attitude and the paper paragraph of art style. From here, by analogy.
Reading classical Chinese in understanding on the basis of words, sentences, also note that from an overall understanding on the content of articles, opinion and expression. Depending on context the context search for hidden information, inferred the meaning of difficult words, and ability to develop their own inferences. As context, binding context to infer the meaning. Characteristics of classical Chinese character-specific rules and habits, there are certain rules to follow, form context to infer the meaning of habit, help to improve the translation of classical Chinese. Can old knowledge to infer the meaning, "reanimating the new". If by "strategy of the improper road" (the horse), "from" associate "from Hoon 12" "CE" (the poem of Mulan), comparison of new and old knowledge, can learn by analogy, both to consolidate previous knowledge, acquire new knowledge, and cultivated the ability to read.
Five, on the literary and cultural knowledge and sentence recited from memory the literature involving writers and works, style and common sense, when workers should be classified, such as classified by dynasty writer, grouped by genre or manner of expression of poetry, in the title and does not represent a style that represents the style of the collation. Famous quotes can be read into read accurately on the basis of dictation, not typos. In addition, the famous writings in classical Chinese in their textbooks are mostly traditional, rich content, succinct language should read the memorization and dictation. It is also an important way to improve the effect of learning classical Chinese.
Six, on extracurricular reading outside reading material from outside, but the class of writings in classical Chinese are often the test migration, such as the non-food meal with texts of the fish I want to support, and only eight of the law and the text of the Tsao kuei debate match. Topics are often established by two aspects, is to investigate whether read; the second is read based on the appreciation of people or events. So, in review, should be taken "inside with outside class" review, "a second look at three migrations." First of all to patience to read the article, but does not require the word implementing, to grasp the idea. After reading, generally where there are still some difficult to understand, you will be subject to search for information. "Read" after "seeing" is to see topics, topics to find information to help us understand the content. Finally, combination of inside and outside class, migrated to expand, to judge the ability to solve problems. BACK